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              [認知心理學] TrueNorth神經突觸芯片綜述

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              1#
              發表于 2016-9-30 12:39 | 只看該作者 回帖獎勵 |倒序瀏覽 |閱讀模式
              IBM的TrueNorth毫無疑問是未來的核心競爭力,之前我寫過若干篇綜述,但在當時看來離實用還很遙遠的事情僅僅過了2年已經成為了眼前的現實。讓我們來梳理下這個神經突觸芯片的發展歷程。2008年開始,美國國防部研究機構DARPA給了IBM 5300萬美元。TrueNorth是IBM參與DARPA的研究項目SyNapse的最新成果。SyNapse全稱是Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics(自適應可塑可伸縮電子神經系統,而SyNapse正好是突觸的意思),其終極目標是開發出打破馮?諾依曼體系的硬件。
              這種芯片把數字處理器當作神經元,把內存作為突觸,跟傳統馮諾依曼結構不一樣,它的內存、CPU和通信部件是完全集成在一起。因此信息的處理完全在本地進行,而且由于本地處理的數據量并不大,傳統計算機內存與CPU之間的瓶頸不復存在了。同時神經元之間可以方便快捷地相互溝通,只要接收到其他神經元發過來的脈沖(動作電位),這些神經元就會同時做動作。
              2011年的時候,IBM首先推出了單核含256 個神經元,256×256 個突觸和 256 個軸突的芯片原型。當時的原型已經可以處理像玩Pong游戲這樣復雜的任務。不過相對來說還是比較簡單,從規模上來說,這樣的單核腦容量僅相當于蟲腦的水平。
              到了2014年,IBM終于在復雜性和使用性方面取得了突破。4096個內核,100萬個“神經元”、2.56億個“突觸”集成在直徑只有幾厘米的方寸(是2011年原型大小的1/16)。

              到了2016年,做到只有郵票大小、重量只有幾克,但卻集成了54億個硅晶體管,內置了4096個內核,100萬個“神經元”、2.56億個“突觸”,能力相當于一臺超級計算機,功耗卻只有65毫瓦。相比其他動則數百W的GPU運算支持的深度學習,IBM能夠將功耗做得這么小??說實話我還沒有理解是什么原理。
              IBM介紹稱,TrueNorth處理器可以給圖片數據分類,每秒速度1200-2600幀,能耗25-275毫瓦。處理器還能夠識別圖片模式,這些圖片是50-100個攝像頭以每秒24幀的速度拍攝的。

              這些芯片裝進一臺名叫NS16e的計算機,該計算機的運行原理與人腦類似。利用神經網絡,NS16e能夠識別圖像、語音、模式。NS16e建有“數字神經元”,但是數量比人腦少得多。IBM系統安裝了16顆TrueNorth芯片,每一顆有100萬個神經元,突觸數量2.56億個,彼此用電路連結在一起。NS16e也有內存、計算通信子系統,但是它們的設計方式與現有組件不同,IBM系統可以處理數據。跟傳統計算機用FLOPS(每秒浮點運算次數)衡量計算能力一樣,IBM使用SOP(每秒突觸運算數)來衡量這種計算機的能力和能效。其完成460億SOP所需的能耗僅為1瓦。
              2016年3月29日,美國勞倫斯.利佛莫爾國家實驗室(LLNL)日前宣布購買了IBM研究院開發的基于TrueNorth神經突觸芯片的同類首創類腦超級計算平臺,用于執行深度學習推理任務。
              2016年9月10日,三星采用TrueNorth處理器推出機器視覺平臺“動態視覺傳感器”(Dynamic Vision Sensor;DVS),可讓鏡頭更新率達到2,000fps,卻只耗電300毫瓦。據說TrueNorth采用28納米制程由三星代工制造。

              2016年9月29日,IBM也推出了基于人工智能大數據平臺的一站式分析服務,Project  DataWorks 。IBM 表示,這將是第一個整合所有類型數據,并利用 AI 進行分析的大數據平臺。目前,Project DataWorks 已經在 IBM 的云平臺 Bluemix 上使用。該平臺旨在促進各類對不同數據的處理有所需要的團隊之間的合作。與其他數據平臺相比,這項服務吸收數據的速度更快,可從 50 Gbps 提升到數百 Gbps,數據源包括企業數據庫、物聯網以及社交媒體等。用戶可以在 Watson Analytics 上打開任何數據集,使用自然語言回答問題,比如“這款產品的驅動力是什么?”以前,這往往需要一個數據科學家手動查閱數以百計的材料才能找到答案,而 Watson Analytics 則可以讓他們瞬間找到答案。Watson主要運用的是一種名為“假設生成”的算法。IBM同時宣布,計劃收購咨詢公司Promontory金融集團,并組建名為“沃森金融服務”新子公司。這筆交易的思路是將Promontory關于金融監管的專業性與IBM人工智能系統沃森進行結合,幫助銀行完成日漸增多的監管要求,例如建設反洗錢檢測系統,用戶投訴數據庫。結合2015年4月,IBM 宣布Watson Health成立向醫療領域進軍,諸如Welltok這樣的公司開始購買IBM的系統,雖然更多地是為了從風投拉一筆錢從產品上來看還很初級。但毫無疑問的是,IBM的股票將來會很值錢,因為IBM要把一切都Watson了。


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              2#
              發表于 2016-12-6 23:41 | 只看該作者
              收藏了,很高大上的樣子!
              3#
              發表于 2016-12-14 11:22 | 只看該作者
              能看得懂嗎
              4#
              發表于 2016-12-14 11:22 | 只看該作者
              能看得懂嗎
              5#
              發表于 2017-1-5 23:20 | 只看該作者
              能看得懂嗎
              6#
              發表于 2017-2-15 11:43 | 只看該作者
              看起來挺復雜的
              7#
              發表于 2017-11-1 08:42 | 只看該作者
              好神奇的~
              8#
              發表于 2017-12-9 19:33 | 只看該作者
              英文有人幫翻譯下嗎
              9#
              發表于 2018-12-10 17:49 | 只看該作者
              神經科學的發展將成為未來世界的主流
              10#
              發表于 2018-12-15 09:37 來自手機 | 只看該作者
              感謝樓主分享!好東西!
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